Posts Tagged ‘Treatment’
One of the most feared health problems the aging Baby Boomer generation will face is dementia. And it won’t just affect those suffering from mental decline but also those who care for them and society at large, at least in financial terms.
A new study predicts that healthcare costs in connection with age-related dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease, will soon surpass almost all other medical expenses, including for heart disease and cancer, two of today’s leading causes of death.
The study, which was conducted by economists at the RAND Corporation and sponsored by the federal government, found that expenditures for dementia patients will at least double by 2040.
3.8 million Americans age 71 and older are now diagnosed with some form of age-related cognitive decline. In another generation, the researchers say, there will be over 9 million.
Direct healthcare costs, including nursing home care, per dementia patient run currently between $41,000 and $56,000 a year. Total expenses in the United States in 2010, the year the study collected its data, ranged from $159 billion to 215 billion. It is projected that these numbers will increase to well over $500 billion annually by mid-century.
Not included in these calculations are the costs of what is considered “informal care,” which is usually provided by family members and voluntary caregivers. It is hard to put a price tag on their efforts, but the study estimates a total of $50 billion to $106 billion spent per year.
“The long-term care costs associated with people with dementia are particularly high because of the nature of the disease,” said Donald Moulds, assistant secretary for planning and evaluation at the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), in an interview with the New York Times. “People eventually become incapable of caring for themselves, and then in the vast majority of cases, their loved ones become incapable of caring for them.”
So far, there is no cure or effective treatment for dementia. However, there are numerous studies suggesting that certain preventive measures may be helpful, at least in terms of delaying or slowing the debilitating effects.
For instance, certain health and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of Alzheimer’s disease can be controlled, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Scientists are exploring whether prevention strategies like physical exercise, diet and intellectual stimulation can counteract deterioration. Controlling body weight and blood pressure are among the most common recommendations experts give in this regard. Also, keeping the brain engaged by constant learning and participating in a lively social environment are thought to be helpful.
Unfortunately, most of this is guesswork. The truth is that we don’t know why dementia is so dramatically on the rise. Is the reason that we live longer, that we eat the wrong foods, that we exercise too little, that we watch too much TV, that we find ourselves increasingly isolated as we grow older – all of the above and more? We don’t know.
Still, we cannot sit idly and ignore the facts. In any case, adherence to a healthy lifestyle will do no harm. We may not find out the specific causes, if there are any, and there may not be an effective treatment available for the foreseeable future.
But in the meantime, we can and should do everything in our power to stay as healthy and active as possible for as long as we can. A good way of going about that is to satisfy all our health needs in every aspect by eating right, exercising regularly, reducing stress, getting enough sleep, nursing relationships, reading books, learning foreign languages and computer programs and so forth. Not one but all of these together make for what I have called the “pillars of our wellbeing.” Until there are better options, that’s all we can do, and that’s not nothing.
Timi Gustafson R.D. is a registered dietitian, newspaper columnist, blogger and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog and at amazon.com. For more articles on nutrition, health and lifestyle, visit her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (www.timigustafson.com). You can follow Timi on Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest
Now that “Obamacare” has become the law of the land and the political disputes over healthcare reform are largely settled, many Americans are worried about the costs of the new insurance policies, especially considering the dismal health status of millions of our citizens.
“Why should we pick up the tab when so much disease in our country stems from unhealthy behavior like smoking and overeating,” asked one commentator in the New York Times. I’m sure such sentiments are widely shared. Many Americans would welcome higher premiums for those who indulge in unhealthy lifestyles, thereby punishing them for their lack of personal responsibility.
“But personal responsibility is a complex notion, especially when it comes to health,” says Dr. Sandeep Jauhar, a cardiologist and director at the Heart Failure Program at Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New York. “Unhealthy habits are one factor in disease, but so are social status, income, family dynamics, education and genetics. […] When people advocate the need for personal accountability, they presuppose more control over health and sickness than actually exists.”
The same goes for those who enjoy excellent health. Their advantages are not based on virtue alone. A report that was commissioned a few years ago by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, titled “Reaching America’s Health Potential,” concluded that the greatest differences in people’s health status are determined by their education levels, which, of course, also reflects to a large extent socio-economic differences. Even life expectancy is affected by educational standards, one study found.
Education is a marker for an array of opportunities and resources that can lead people to better or worse health, says Dr. David Williams, the staff director of the commission tasked with the report. A good education can offer greater job and career opportunities, higher income, more meaningful and creative work, a wider social network and support system. And access to healthcare is more likely.
When the sociologist Robert K. Merton of Columbia University first coined the term “Accumulated Advantage,” a.k.a. the “Matthew Effect” (taking the name from the Gospel of Matthew, verse 25:29), he described these dynamics as applicable to nearly every part of our lives, including our health.
Getting an education, and particularly health education, is not necessarily a matter of formal learning. It starts in the home, in early childhood. If healthy eating is encouraged, if food is valued, if sharing meals is a part of family life, chances are a solid foundation is laid for a lifetime of nutritional wellbeing. The same applies for physical activity and weight management. One leads to the other. Conversely, if fast food and pizza are the usual choix du jour, if smoking, drinking or drug abuse are considered acceptable behavior, if exercise is rare or nonexistent, then the consequences are predictable from the start.
But let’s be honest. There are poor eating habits, but there are also food-deserts where nutritious food is hard to come by. There is lack of exercise, but there are also not enough safe sidewalks, bike paths and public parks in low-income neighborhoods. There are dysfunctional families, but there are also countless parents working sometimes multiple low-paying jobs while desperately trying to provide their kids with a sense of home.
Universal health care must address all these issues, not just in terms of giving access to treatment for everyone who needs it but, even more importantly, in terms of preventing illness as much as possible. We cannot afford less.
If you liked this article, you may also enjoy reading “What Your Neighborhood Says About Your Health.”
Timi Gustafson R.D. is a registered dietitian, newspaper columnist, blogger and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog and at amazon.com. For more articles on nutrition, health and lifestyle, visit her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (www.timigustafson.com). You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.
The Obama administration has tasked the science community with finding some effective treatments for Alzheimer’s disease by 2025. Experts consider the quest as ambitious. Still, health advocates applaud the government’s initiative, calling it an important step towards prevention, delay and, eventually, cure of the disorder.
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most feared health conditions among Baby Boomers, second only to cancer, according to a survey conducted by the Alzheimer’s Association and the Harvard School of Public Health, which was first published at an international conference in Paris, France, last year. However, because of stigma and misinformation about Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia, too many cases still remain undiagnosed. As a first step, the government has announced a major campaign to better educate both the medical community and the public at large about the disease.
“Alzheimer’s is the most significant social and health crisis of the 21st century,” said Dr. William Thies, the Chief Medical and Scientific Officer of the Alzheimer’s Association. “The overwhelming numbers of people whose lives will be altered by the disease, combined with the staggering economic burden on families and nations, make Alzheimer’s the defining disease of this generation. However, if governments act urgently to develop national research and care strategies with appropriate smart investments, the impact of Alzheimer’s and dementia can be managed,” he added.
Currently, over five million Americans suffer from Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementias, a toll that is expected to triple by 2050. The numbers may be much higher yet because as many as half of those affected have not been formally diagnosed. According to the American Health Assistance Foundation (AHAF), almost half a million new cases are added annually. Over 80,000 patients die from the disease every year, making Alzheimer’s the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S.
The annual costs for treatments and care of Alzheimer’s patients in the U.S. amounted approximately to $183 billion in 2011; they are expected to reach over one trillion dollars by 2050. The vast majority of people with Alzheimer’s receive home care by relatives, which is not covered by Medicare and most health insurance plans. For this reason, the new government initiative also aims at providing some form of relief for overwhelmed families who carry the burden of caring for loved ones, although the details hereto are still unclear.
Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia. The disease worsens as it progresses and leads to death within four to seven years on average, although 20 years are not unheard of. It was first described in 1906 by the German psychiatrist and neuropathologist, Alois Alzheimer, and was named after him.
Early symptoms are often overlooked or misinterpreted as age- or stress-related phenomena such as forgetfulness or confusion. Since the disease affects each individual differently, predicting its course is difficult.
What causes Alzheimer’s in the first place is not yet fully understood. Currently available treatments can only help with its symptomatic effects but are not able to halt or reverse progression. Some have suggested that diet, exercise and mental stimulation can have a positive impact, however, there is no clinically proven evidence that such measures have a real effect in terms of prevention.
Still, most experts agree that healthy diet and lifestyle choices are the best weapons we currently have against all age-related diseases, including Alzheimer’s and dementia.
Timi Gustafson R.D. is a clinical dietitian and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (http://www.timigustafson.com), and at amazon.com. You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.