Posts Tagged ‘Job Loss’
People get fat from eating too much and exercising too little. At least that’s the most widely held explanation for the growing obesity crisis around the world. But it’s not that simple, says Dr. Achim Peters, a professor of neurology at the University of Lübeck in Germany and author of “The Selfish Brain – Why Our Brain Sabotages Dieting and Resists the Body” (Ullstein, 2011).
The worldwide obesity epidemic is in truth a stress epidemic, and unhealthy weight gain is just one of the ills that plague an increasingly stressed population trying to cope with the ever-growing demands of modern life, he says in an interview with the German news magazine “Der Spiegel” (2/9/2013).
In reality, weight issues are often rooted in socio-economic difficulties like job loss, poverty, rising food prices and other existential uncertainties, he says. It puts tremendous pressure on people. Stress-producing situations can be immensely damaging to our health, especially when they persist over long periods of time with no reprieve in sight.
Dr. Peters is best known for the “Selfish Brain Theory,” which he developed together with an interdisciplinary team of scientists over a decade ago when researching the origins of obesity. In essence, the theory describes how the brain takes care of its own needs first when regulating energy distribution throughout the body. It is “selfish” in the sense that it always wins out in any competition for energy resources, at the expense of all other organs if necessary.
In times of stress, the brain spends particularly high amounts of energy, which requires an increase in food intake. During acute stress situations, a rapid spike in energy demand is natural and not harmful. It is different when stress is prolonged. Then it can become a chronic state and as such quite dangerous.
To shed some light on these dynamics, it is important to understand our body’s hormonal responses to stress. Energy in the body is regulated and mobilized by a hormone called cortisol. Cortisol selects the right type and amount of energy to meet the body’s demands when responding to a particular situation. Cortisol is also responsible for mobilizing energy by tapping into the body’s fat stores and moving it to where it’s most needed, primarily in the brain.
Studies in animals and humans have shown that heightened secretion of cortisol is associated with increased appetite, especially for sugar. In cases of enduring stress, this can stimulate food consumption to the point of overeating with all the detrimental consequences we are so familiar with. Moreover, too much cortisol can slow the metabolism, causing more weight gain than would normally occur. It can also affect fat distribution. Fat in the stomach area is considered a greater health risk than when it’s stored around the hips and thighs.
Ultimately, we will not be able to address the obesity crisis effectively if we continue to ignore the effects of chronic stress on our hormonal system, says Dr. Peters. Asking people to diet and force themselves to lose weight through deprivation can only make things worse. The solution is to de-stress our lives. This doesn’t mean more yoga and meditating, although that can help too, but mostly better socio-economic security and, as a result, peace of mind for more people.
As a point in case he cites a study conducted by the University of Chicago that compared two groups of single mothers from low-income neighborhoods. One group of women was moved to a more upscale area with safer streets, greater job opportunities and better schools, the other was left in place. Within a few years, most of the women who had moved away showed considerable improvement in their health, especially in reduction of diabetes and obesity. As their stress lessened, their well-being increased on every level.
If you liked this article, you may also enjoy reading Can’t Lose Weight? t Could Be Stress
Timi Gustafson R.D. is a registered dietitian, newspaper columnist, blogger and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog and at amazon.com. For more articles on nutrition, health and lifestyle, visit her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (www.timigustafson.com). You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.
The number of Americans living below the official poverty line has increased to 46.2 million, according to just released statistics by the Census Bureau. It is a record in the 52 years the bureau has surveyed poverty in the United States.
The median household income fell nationally last year back to the levels of 1997. It is the first time since the Great Depression that Americans earned less, adjusted for inflation, than they did over a decade ago.
Predictably, minorities were hit the hardest, with poverty rates twice as high as those of non-Hispanic whites. Southern states had the highest amount of people falling into poverty – almost double the rate of the Northeast, Midwest and West.
The poverty threshold is an annual income of $22,314 for a family of four and $11,344 for a single person.
“This is truly a lost decade,” said Lawrence Katz, an economics professor at Harvard University. “We think of America as a place where every generation is doing better, but we’re looking at a period when the median family is in worse shape than it was in the late 1990s.”
As income declined, the number of people without health insurance coverage rose. Nearly 50 million are now uninsured, almost a million more since 2009. For many working-age Americans, job loss and long-term unemployment lead to loss of employer-provided health insurance or affordable alternatives. And those who are working often struggle to maintain their coverage. In 2010, approximately 55 percent of working Americans were insured by their employers, a 10 percent decrease from 2000, according to the census report.
Studies on the causes of poverty have shown that there are three important components that hold together the social safety net for most people: Income, health and relationships. If one of these fails, the other two are usually still able to bridge the gap, at least for some time. However, if two out of three are diminished, the chances for falling into poverty and even homelessness rise sharply. In other words, if you lose your job but are healthy and have a stable marriage or partnership (especially if there is a second income in a household), you are much better equipped to get through the ordeal of temporary unemployment than if you are sick and/or on your own. That may sound like a no-brainer, but it is exactly the kind of situation that most poor people are dealing with.
The harsh realities of poverty affect the youngest members of society even more. 22 percent of children and adolescents under 18 are now considered poor. Hunger or what is called in bureaucratic terms, “food insecurity,” affects 15 million kids in this country today. Considering the importance of healthy nutrition for normal physical and mental development at a young age, there is a whole generation that is being lost in front of our eyes.
Nutrition-related diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure, are most common among the poor. With healthy foods out of reach because of high prices and lack of outlets in low-income neighborhoods, poor families have little choice but to survive on junk food.
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has recently published a report on “Health Disparities in Life Expectancy and Death,” documenting current health disparities in New York City based on differences in race, ethnicity and economics. Other factors included in the study were social and physical environmental conditions, opportunities, stressors that impact health, access to primary and preventive health care and quality of health care received.
Trying to identify how poverty and health are interrelated, the researchers wrote: “Living in poverty makes it difficult to know about, find or access a variety of resources that promote health and prevent illness. For example, people living in poor neighborhoods may have access to fewer opportunities to exercise and buy healthy food. Living with limited resources also increases stress and anxiety, which can, in turn, lead to unhealthy habits, like smoking and drug use. In the other direction, poor health can prevent people from completing their education and obtaining well-paying jobs, which can lead to subsequent poverty.”
In other words, the decline of income, social safety and health are all part of the same vicious cycle. To break it, the Health Department makes a number of recommendations, including setting up “health policies that benefit vulnerable populations,” directing “resources to target communities disproportionately affected by illness and premature death,” and implementing “policies that reduce economic and social disadvantages.”
In the meantime, the White House and Congress continue debating how to cut hundreds of billions of dollars more from entitlements and aid programs. I guess the statistics are not scary enough just yet.
Timi Gustafson R.D. is a clinical dietitian and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” ( http://www.timigustafson.com), and at amazon.com. You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.