Posts Tagged ‘Hypertension’
Seniors who suffer from chronic health conditions like high blood pressure or heart disease often develop a host of other, seemingly unrelated health problems, including cognitive impairment like memory loss and dementia, according to a new study based on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics.
For the study, the researchers analyzed the medical records of hundreds of thousands of seniors residing in assisted-living facilities and found that most had at least one chronic health condition. What was more alarming, however, was that many had overlapping ailments. While high blood pressure and heart disease were most common, nearly half of the assisted-living residents showed signs of dementia.
“These findings suggest a vulnerable population with a high burden of functional and cognitive impairment,” the authors of the study report wrote.
Many studies have suggested a link between vascular disease and dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s, said Dr. P. Murali Doraiswamy, a professor for psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University’s Institute for Brain Sciences (DIBS). Therefore it may not be possible to treat dementia without treating vascular problems, he added.
But that may be easier said than done. “We don’t universally do a great job of how we treat conditions that overlap, for example Alzheimer’s and high blood pressure,” said Dr. Cythia M. Boyd, an associate professor of geriatric medicine at the John Hopkins University Center on Aging and Health, to the New York Times. “Much of the way we practice medicine is looking at disease by disease. We aren’t doing enough thinking about how to add them together and really integrate care.”
What makes things more complicated is that most doctors are not sufficiently trained in preventing or reducing lifestyle-related illnesses – not in the general public and certainly not in older patients – other than through medicating. For instance, the importance of nutrition as a part of preventive care is rarely ever mentioned in medical schools. The approximate time devoted to nutrition science over the first two years of medical education is six hours, which is clearly inadequate, according to the National Academy of Sciences. The same goes for other health-promoting measures such as exercise, especially for the aging population.
Yet many studies have provided compelling evidence that diet and exercise play a significant role for physical and mental health at any time in life but increasingly so as we age.
For example, a more recent study from Britain concluded that the so-called “Western diet,” which typically includes fried, sweet and processed foods, red meat, refined grains and high-fat dairy products, increases the risk of chronic diseases, which in turn can adversely affect both physical and mental health in later years. Eating a Western diet makes it less likely to have an ideal aging process, says Dr. Tasnime Akbaraly, a researcher at the University College of London and lead author of the study report. Conversely, making dietary improvements can yield multiple benefits in this regard.
There is also further evidence that exercise can give a boost to the aging brain. Scientists at the University of British Columbia found that older women who suffered from mild cognitive impairment could improve their memory through weight training and brisk walking.
The connections between physical and mental decline may not yet be completely understood, but it seems clear that chronic diseases play a major role in the process. While these are widespread, the encouraging news is that many, if not all, are preventable by healthier lifestyle choices.
Timi Gustafson R.D. is a registered dietitian, newspaper columnist, blogger and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog and at amazon.com. For more articles on nutrition, health and lifestyle, visit her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (www.timigustafson.com).
Less salt in our food supply could save at least half a million Americans from dying prematurely over the next ten years, according to separate studies conducted at three universities, two American and one Canadian. If the average daily salt intake were to drop to 1,500 milligrams, as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the number of lives saved could more than double. All study results were published in the medical journal Hypertension, a publication of the American Heart Association (AHA).
Americans currently consume on average 3,600 milligrams of salt daily, mostly in form of sodium, widely used as an ingredient in processed foods. Sodium is considered a significant contributor to high blood pressure, which can lead to heart disease, heart attack and stroke, all leading causes of death in the U.S. today.
About a third of American adults, or 68 million, suffer from high blood pressure, a.k.a. hypertension, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The condition was identified as a primary or contributing cause of nearly 350,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2008, the last time the CDC has updated its research on the subject.
Despite of these alarming statistics, there are currently no signs of improvement. Even better treatment has only shown mixed results. Less than half (46 percent) of high blood pressure patients have their condition under control, according to the CDC.
Because the salt content in processed food is already added before it reaches the consumer, there is little opportunity to make changes on an individual basis other than limiting one’s choices to fresh items like produce. This would also exclude many options in restaurants.
“Individuals can’t make this choice easily,” said Dr. Kirstin Bibbins-Domingo, professor of medicine and epidemiology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), to ABC News. “So maybe we should find ways to work with the food industry,” she suggested.
The National Salt Reduction Initiative, a partnership started by the New York City Health Department that has expanded to nearly 100 city and state health organizations across the country, has been trying to get food manufacturers and restaurant operators to cut salt by 25 percent or more since 2008, the year of the organization’s inception. The current goal is to achieve a reduction of 20 percent by 2014.
Critics say that such measures are impractical and would make little difference. Public health advocates have been focusing on hypertension as if no other health threats existed, said Morton Satin, Vice President of science and research at the Salt Institute, a trade association for the salt industry, in response to the recent studies to ABC News. The association warns that low salt intake could produce its own set of health problems, especially for the elderly.
While most experts would agree that multiple factors can be responsible for the development of high blood pressure, including genetic predisposition, gender, age and other non-modifiable components, poor diet and lifestyle choices, which are modifiable and therefore preventable risk factors, usually play a much greater role. In a milestone conference on the connections between sodium intake and blood pressure, sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the participating scientists concluded that “an abundance of scientific evidence indicates that higher sodium consumption is associated with higher levels of blood pressure, [as demonstrated in] animal studies, observational epidemiologic studies, and clinical studies and trials.” They were also hopeful that more effective strategies could be developed to improve diet and lifestyles patterns that benefit the larger population.
If you liked this article, you may also enjoy reading: “Too Much Salt in Our Food Creates Serious Health Hazards.”
Timi Gustafson R.D. is a registered dietitian, newspaper columnist, blogger and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog and at amazon.com. For more articles on nutrition, health and lifestyle, visit her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (www.timigustafson.com). You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.
If you think your blood pressure is normal, you may want to double-check with your doctor. According to new guidelines, blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg, which was until recently seen as within a healthy range, is now classified as elevated.
Scientists at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) found that people under the age of 65 who were diagnosed with a condition called “prehypertension” had a 68 percent increased risk of suffering a stroke compared to those with normal readings.
Prehypertension is defined by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a systolic pressure (upper number) of 120 to 139 mmHg and a diastolic pressure (lower number) of 80 to 89. Higher readings than 140/90 are considered to be hypertension. Ideally, the normal range should be well below the prehypertension threshold.
When blood pressure rises, the heart has to work harder. If blood pressure remains chronically elevated, the risk of cardiovascular disease increases, which can eventually lead to heart attack, stroke or heart failure.
A primary risk factor is obesity. The greater the body mass, the more blood is needed to transport oxygen and nutrients. The higher volume of blood circulating through the blood vessels puts ever more force on the artery walls.
There are other causes as well. Atherosclerosis, the buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries, is quite common. Other contributing conditions are sleep apnea, kidney disease, thyroid disease and adrenal disease.
Poor diet- and lifestyle choices are most often (at least in part) responsible for high blood pressure to occur. But even some medications, including birth control pills, cold remedies, painkillers and other prescription drugs can play a role. So can recreational drugs like cocaine and amphetamines.
There is no cure for high blood pressure, only treatment through medication and lifestyle measures like diet and exercise.
Prehypertension should be seen as a warning sign, according to Dr. Bruce Ovbiagele, a professor at UCSD and lead author of the study that lead to the revised guidelines. “This doesn’t mean that people with prehypertension should start taking anti-hypertensive drugs. Instead, they should modify their lifestyle, maintain an ideal weight and lower their sodium intake.”
The worst you can do is to ignore the numbers, said Dr. Ovbiagele. “You shouldn’t be deceived because nothing seems to be going on.” Because there are no specific symptoms for prehypertension or hypertension, people tend to think they can live with the condition.
Nothing could be further from the truth. If you are overweight, even moderately, shed the extra pounds as soon as possible. Exercise regularly. Nothing is better for your blood pressure and your heart than a rigorous workout several times a week (consult with your doctor if you already have elevated blood pressure and don’t currently exercise). Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish and low-fat dairy products. Avoid foods that are high in sodium like processed and packaged food items. Eat foods that are low-fat, low-cholesterol and free of trans fats and other unhealthy ingredients. Cut back on meat, especially red meat. Drink alcohol in only moderation, preferably red wine. Last but not least, manage your stress and get enough sleep.
Timi Gustafson R.D. is a clinical dietitian and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (http://www.timigustafson.com), and at amazon.com. You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.