Posts Tagged ‘Children’

Food Companies Use Latest Technologies to Market Directly to Children

September 23rd, 2012 at 1:13 pm by timigustafson

Parents have long felt outgunned when battling the food industry for the hearts and minds of their children. Whenever they try to limit exposure to advertisements on TV, the Internet and in supermarkets, marketers have already found new ways to interact with their youngest customers.

The latest frontier: Ads on smartphones and tablets. New technologies allow companies to directly reach children by placing their products in games and other displays designed for touch-screen devices.

This is an especially fertile ground. Mobile apps are extremely popular with young kids as well as teenagers. And what’s even better for the industry, so far they are completely unregulated.

“The mobile games demonstrate how new technology is changing U.S. commerce, drawing tighter bonds between marketers and young consumers,” writes Anton Troianovski in an article for the Wall Street Journal.

This provides many new opportunities for food companies that have long been pressured by government agencies and advocacy groups to limit their advertising efforts aimed at children. “If [kids] have their phone with them, they can be playing these games that are basically advertisements in school and basically 24/7,” warned Jennifer Harris of the Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity in an interview for the article.

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has made a number of attempts to impose more regulations on advertisers who target underage audiences but has never been able to get beyond issuing a few “voluntary guidelines.” In its latest initiative, the agency hopes to at least “shine some light” on current industry practices. It is unclear what that will entail.

Past proposals for regulatory measures have been rejected by Congress as too strict or burdensome, and several government agencies have eventually dropped their combined efforts to tighten control. Still, over a dozen major food companies, among them McDonald’s, Burger King, Mars Inc. and Kraft, have committed themselves to promoting more healthy foods to children, a somewhat vague but welcome step in the right direction. However, product placements on apps are not affected by this agreement.

Other increasingly common approaches marketers take are so-called cross-promotions where foods and beverages are simultaneously tied to movies, TV shows, product packaging, the Internet and in-store displays. According to one report by the FTC, film characters like Superman or Pirates of the Caribbean reappear in video games (a.k.a. “advergames”) and free downloads (a.k.a. “Webisodes”) from websites. The agency has recently asked media and entertainment companies to be more discriminatory when licensing such characters and to restrict campaigns to healthier foods and beverages when they are directed towards children. Again, there are no mandatory rules in any of these matters.

What concerns me most about these new technologies and their ability to help reach children by bypassing parental supervision is just that. Parents are supposed to be gatekeepers who protect their children from outside influences, at least in the early stages of their lives.

You may say it is still up to the adults to decide what foods are being bought and served in the home. But companies know very well about the “nag factor” and how persuasive children can be in their demands. They know that snack foods and candy are widely used as pacifiers to stave off temper tantrums. They know that their youngest targets are unable to distinguish between advertising and truth-telling, and that they can easily be manipulated. As I said before, parents find themselves routinely outgunned against this onslaught.

It would be naïve to think we can completely control the impact of new technologies on our lives and how they will be used. But that still does not absolve us from acting responsibly, especially on behalf of our children. It’s a battle worth fighting.

Timi Gustafson R.D. is a clinical dietitian and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (http://www.timigustafson.com), and at amazon.com. You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.

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Diabetes Dramatically on the Rise Among Teenagers

May 23rd, 2012 at 2:23 pm by timigustafson

Nearly a quarter of American children and adolescents is developing type 2 diabetes or has already the disease, according to a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), published in the journal Pediatrics. Diabetes and other metabolic conditions seem to spread more rapidly among the young and are harder to treat than in adults.

The study also found that over 50 percent of overweight and obese teenagers had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Prediabetes and diabetes rates rose faster than other lifestyle-related diseases among adolescents. “This was unexpected, especially since obesity has been leveling off,” said Dr. Ashleigh May, a researcher at the CDC and lead author of the study report.

The term “prediabetes” refers to higher than normal blood sugar levels and the possibility of developing type 2 diabetes and other risks factors for heart disease, stroke and kidney disease, according to the CDC.

Not too long ago, type 2 diabetes was known as adult onset diabetes because it was virtually unheard of affecting children. But with the growing childhood obesity epidemic in recent years, more youngsters are being diagnosed with the disease every year.

Even normal-weight children are not completely safe. Of those thinner kids, 37 percent have at least one heart risk factor, said Dr. May. “Anyone who’s eating a diet high in sugar and fat will likely have problems, even if it isn’t apparent in their weight,” said Dr. Dorothy Becker, chief of endocrinology and diabetes at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh. “If they don’t make a change, then they’ll carry all of these risk factors into adulthood, and that’s like having a ticking time bomb over your head. You don’t necessarily know when it’s going to go off, but it’s likely that it will,” she added.

Dr. Mark Hyman, chairman of the Institute for Functional Medicine and founder of The UltraWellness Center as well as bestselling author of “The Blood Sugar Solution,” agrees. “One in three children born today will have diabetes in their lifetime. We are raising the first generation of Americans to live sicker and die younger than their parents. Life expectancy is actually declining for the first time in human history,” he warned.

Even the distinction between prediabetes and diabetes he considers as meaningless. “Prediabetes is not ‘pre’ anything,” he said. “It is a deadly disease driving our biggest killers – heart attacks, strokes, cancer, dementia and more. So if your doctor has diagnosed you with prediabetes or metabolic syndrome, don’t think that you are only at risk for something “in the future,” such as diabetes or heart attack. The problem is happening right know.”

In response to study reports like these, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that children and adolescents undergo regular check-ups of their blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

The good news is that these developments are largely reversible and avoidable in the future through dietary changes and lifestyle improvements. “The big message here is that children and teenagers need more help with following a healthy diet and staying physically active,” said Dr. May.

Obviously parents are the first line of defense when it comes to their children’s health and well-being. But society has a role to play as well – nutrition and health education in all public schools being one of them.

In all likelihood this latest CDC study will be dismissed (like most others) in the public discourse as just another “doomsday” report that can be ignored. In truth, however, an entire generation’s future is at stake. If we continue on the path we are currently on, we are going to become a nation where being sick is normal and good health is the rare exception. It doesn’t have to come to that.

Timi Gustafson R.D. is a clinical dietitian and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (http://www.timigustafson.com), and at amazon.com. You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.

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Can Following a Vegan Diet Be Appropriate for Children?

April 22nd, 2012 at 2:17 pm by timigustafson

Going totally vegan is becoming increasingly popular among health-conscious adults and many encourage their children to follow suit. But some parents are unsure whether diet restrictions they find healthful for themselves are also a good choice for their kids.

The idea of bringing up youngsters as vegans is controversial, even among nutrition experts. Critics warn that an exclusively plant-based diet may be inappropriate for young children because of the risk of malnutrition when essential nutrients provided in animal products are missing.

Infants and toddlers have special dietary needs because of their rapid growth and development. For those reasons, no dietary restrictions should be applied under the age of two.

Proponents claim that following the dietary guidelines of vegans is beneficial at every stage in life and in any case preferable to the typical American diet, which offers higher amounts of calories and fat but is of lesser nutritional quality.

Veganism, the strictest form of vegetarian diets, excludes all animal food products, including eggs and dairy products. Less stringent variations are semi-vegetarianism (includes fish, poultry, eggs and dairy products but no beef, lamb or pork), lacto-vegetarianism (includes dairy products) and ovo-vegetarianism (includes eggs).

According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), “appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.” The Academy also stresses that “vegetarian diets in childhood and adolescence can aid in the establishment of lifelong healthful eating patterns.” In other words, early adherence to vegetarian eating styles can lay a good foundation for nutritional health, whether those patterns last or change later in life.

A predominantly vegetarian diet is recommended for both children and adults who have weight problems, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. One in three children living in the United States today is overweight or obese and will likely develop some diet-related health problems over time, according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Switching to a vegetarian-style diet, sooner rather than later, can help prevent many of these negative health effects.

While it is true that following a strict vegan diet can have its challenges in terms of nutritional balance, vegans can plan their meals carefully to ensure sufficient access to a full range of important nutrients, including so-called “complete” protein. For children in their growing stages, lack of protein can cause serious health problems, including stunted growth and other developmental setbacks.

Only animal and soy proteins are considered “complete” because they contain all amino acids (the building blocks that make up protein) the human body requires. Plant foods can only offer “incomplete” proteins, lacking one or more amino acids. But vegans can make up for these deficiencies by combining different plant foods, for example by eating grains together with legumes, vegetables with legumes, vegetables with nuts, grains with nuts and so on. Because amino acids stay in the blood stream for several hours, complimentary proteins don’t have to be consumed all at once but can be distributed over several meals.

Calcium and iron are two nutrients more easily derived from animal products than from plant foods. Green leafy and cruciferous vegetables such as kale, spinach, broccoli and Brussels sprouts are good sources of calcium. Iron can be found in greens too. Vitamin C-rich foods like citrus fruits enhance iron absorption.

Harder to come by is vitamin B12, which is essential for the health of both blood and nerves. B12 cannot be found in plant foods at all, but the body’s needs can be met by drinking fortified soymilk, eating fortified breakfast cereals or by taking multivitamin supplements.

Iodine is a trace mineral important for the regulation of thyroid hormones. Dietary sources include iodized salt, seafood, eggs, dairy products and crops grown in iodine-rich soil. If these are excluded, smaller amounts are available in green leafy vegetables, potatoes (with skins), seaweed and kelp.

Vitamin D is a nutrient needed for growth and the formation of healthy bones and teeth. It is also harder to get from plant food than from animal products. Thankfully, some vitamin D can be obtained through sun exposure. If sunlight is limited (e.g. you stay indoors or live in Seattle), dietary sources must make up the difference. Fish and fortified milk are good providers, however, if they are excluded, there are only a few plant-based options, such as cauliflower. A multivitamin supplement may be your best solution.

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids. They are not made in the body but are important for many bodily functions, including fighting inflammation. Richly present in fish, omega-3s can be supplemented by taking a daily tablespoon of flaxseed or rapeseed oil.

Looking at all the options, it seems very possible to raise healthy children on a vegan diet, especially as they grow older and become adolescents. As long as parents are aware of potential pitfalls and take proper precautions, they should feel confident that they are doing their kids a good service. “The real issue is not whether a child’s diet is vegan or not, or restricted or not. The important thing is whether it’s healthy,” says Amanda Baker, a media spokesperson for the Vegan Society. There are plenty of kids who are not vegan but lack all sorts of nutrients because of their poor diet. It is actually easier for vegans to meet the government’s dietary recommendations for fruits and vegetables servings than for most people, according to Baker.

Ruby Roth, the author of two books about veganism for children, titled “Why We Don’t Eat Animals” (2009) and “Vegan Is Love” (2012), says that introducing children to vegan-style eating has other benefits besides healthful nutrition as well, including instilling interest in environmental and animal rights issues at a young age.

What matters most is that children don’t feel forced to stay within strict dietary limits that don’t allow for some flexibility. If the parents themselves are new to vegetarianism and are trying to get their youngsters to join in, they should start slowly, let’s say, by having one or two meatless nights a week and then progress from there. It’s the same with all diet and lifestyle changes – if they don’t become natural, they won’t last long.

Timi Gustafson R.D. is a clinical dietitian and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” (http://www.timigustafson.com), and at amazon.com. You can follow Timi on Twitter and on Facebook.

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Malnutrition During Childhood Can Cause Lifelong Health Problems

August 26th, 2011 at 5:28 pm by timigustafson

Pediatricians in almost every part of the country report seeing undernourished children in greater numbers than at any time in recent memory. More and more parents who have fallen on hard times due to the ongoing economic downturn are unable to afford enough food to give to their kids. Entire families subsist on junk food and go hungry for several days each month, according to a survey conducted by researchers at Boston Medical Center (BMC).

“Before the economy soured in 2007, 12 percent of youngsters age 3 and under whose families were randomly surveyed in the hospital’s emergency department were significantly underweight. In 2010, that percentage jumped to 18 percent, and the tide does not appear to be abating,” said Dr. Megan Sandel, professor of pediatrics and public health at BMC and investigator with Children’s Health Watch, a network of researchers who track children’s health in the U.S. “Food is costing more and dollars don’t stretch as far. It’s hard to maintain a diet that is healthy,” she added.

Doctors at hospitals in Baltimore, Little Rock, Minneapolis and Philadelphia also reported dramatic increases in the ranks of malnourished kids that show up in their emergency rooms with nutrition-related health problems.

Nearly 40 million people, including 14 million children, are currently facing hunger or the risk of hunger in America, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s surveys on domestic food security. 3.5 percent of American households experience hunger on a regular basis, meaning that families are forced to skip meals and go without food for entire days. Three million children live under these severe conditions. Another eight percent of households are affected by chronic food insecurity, which means they are periodically at risk of hunger, eat low-quality diets and depend heavily on outside help, such as food stamps and food banks. 10.5 million children live currently in this kind of situation.

When children experience hunger, even temporarily, it is a much more serious problem than when adults suffer from shortages. A lot of irreversible damage can be done when growing kids are deprived of essential nutrients. A recently published study on the exposure to famine and under-nutrition during childhood and adolescence found that serious health problems persist throughout adulthood among those who were exposed to malnutrition early in life. The study, which was conducted by researchers from the University Medical Centre Utrecht and the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and published in the European Heart Journal, found “direct evidence that acute under-nutrition during childhood has an important impact on future health.”

For the study, the researchers investigated the medical history of almost 8,000 women who lived as children, teenagers or young adults during the so-called “Dutch famine” right at the end of World War II. “The Dutch famine of 1944 to 1945 is a ‘natural experiment’ in history, which gave us the unique possibility to study the long-term effects of acute under-nutrition during childhood,” wrote Dr. Annet van Abeelen from Utrecht, one of the lead authors of the study report. “Our findings suggest that a relatively short period of severe under-nutrition is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in adult life, in a dose-dependent manner,” she added.

The women who were between 10 and 17 years old at the start of the famine, and who had been severely exposed to food shortages, were found to have a 38 percent higher risk of developing heart disease later in life, compared to others who were only moderately or not at all affected.

“The contemporary relevance of our findings is that famine and under-nutrition are still a major problem worldwide,” Dr. Abeelen wrote.

Depending on a child’s age, malnutrition can be extremely harmful both mentally and physically. Symptoms of nutritional deficiencies can include poor (stunted) growth of the brain and vital organs, mental retardation, muscle weakness, compromised immune system, fragile bone structure (rickets, osteoporosis), decaying teeth, delayed growth spurts and puberty, delayed menstrual cycle for young girls, and many chronic conditions, like asthma, anemia and pneumonia. A vast array of illnesses that develop later in life, like diabetes, heart disease and failure of key organs to function properly, can also be traced back to poor nutrition during childhood.

In other words, from a perspective of public health, the myriad effects of poverty and hunger on today’s children will stay with us for a very long time, possibly for a generation. Even proponents of austerity programs to reduce the national deficit acknowledge that cutting back on government spending on behalf of the most vulnerable members of society will make the current situation only worse. For the millions who already struggle to survive, shrinking the economy further is a recipe for disaster. In the end, we all will pay the price in terms of higher health care costs – just to keep a significant part of the population alive.

Timi Gustafson R.D. is a clinical dietitian and author of the book “The Healthy Diner – How to Eat Right and Still Have Fun”®, which is available on her blog, “Food and Health with Timi Gustafson R.D.” ( http://www.timigustafson.com), and at amazon.com. You can follow Timi on Twitter at http://twitter.com/TimiGustafsonRD

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About timigustafson

Timi Gustafson, RD, LDN, FAND is a registered dietitian, health counselor, book author, syndicated newspaper columnist and blogger. She lectures on nutrition and healthy living to audiences worldwide. She is the founder and president of Solstice Publications LLC, a publishing company specializing in health and lifestyle education. Timi completed her Clinical Dietetic Internship at the University of California Medical Center, San Francisco. She is a Fellow of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, an active member of the Washington State Dietetic Association, a member of the Diabetes Care and Education, Healthy Aging, Vegetarian Nutrition and the Sports, Cardiovascular and Wellness Nutrition practice groups. For more information, please visit http://www.timigustafson.com

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